NASA Mars 2020 Perseverance Rover

Touchdown, Feb. 18, 2021. Jezero Crater.
Mission overview link
Watch landing and Timeline schedule
Perseverance Rover details and links
RAW Images link
Rover Interactive Map

4km scale Interactive Map view of planned landing location. Rover updated location will be available from the link of the Interactive Map.
News conference a few hours after the mid-day touchdown.
Many current and landing day links to watch at the ‘Watch Landing’ link above in the link list.

One of my initial observations at the 50 meter and closer scaled views is of linear geological features which are crossing the flat deposition zone to the right of the blue marked planned landing area. This example below shows a very long sample slightly more than 3km beyond the marked landing location.
The inset at a scale of 5 meters shows the gap width to be about 2 meters, with the full feature effect to be 3 meters across. These features tend to be actively altering/modifying other geological features and continue across craters, ridges, and layering. Some of these are many kilometers in length.

Linear 2 to 3 meter wide geological features

At some point the Perseverance rover should cross one or more of these active features. Many of these are not on the planned rover path. So many things to see if time and milage become available. Would these features give aid in sampling the subsurface content by exposure at shallow depth?
Is this a product of dessication of the ‘playa’, or migration of subsurface content?

An additional example of the many ‘channels’ which criss-cross the crater floor, some altering other features, some apparently resistant to erosion, I am referring to this as example 2.
I have taken a screenshot of the landing ellipse area subsection with the partial blue circle visible on the extreme right side at a 1 kilometer scaled view, and I have inset a 50 meter scaled view closeup of a portion of a channel with resistant side margins.
The added area scaled graphic is 3 meters wide by 50 meters long to give perspective to the fairly stable width of the channels versus the very long paths the channels developed.
In this example both margins have partly survived the local environmental stresses.
I recognize this built image can be confusing, but the qualities of the side margins are differing in each example.
The location inside the landing ellipse and the presence of many of these channels nearby gives me hope we may see these closeup with rover equipment soon after todays touchdown in a couple hours.

A briefing and Youtube video, and NASA TV session, are scheduled during the afternoon a few hours after the touchdown.
This is now Feb. 18, 2021. A great year for Mars science and several missions underway.


One additional similar geological feature at approximately 10 meters width marks the Jezero crater delta margin. The appearance of sections of this feature shows the delta margin is causatively related to the specific feature.
I have inset two 10 meter by 50 meter scale graphics along a portion of the margin where two visible lengths could be imaged in a screenshot. A third section is visible but is not seen in the screenshot. The matching pattern is very clear. Using the Mars 2020 website Interactive Map a reader can view the three example portions.
It is very easy to start a graphic scale by hovering the mouse arrow over the far lower left corner fixed scale. Use the mouse left button for a few seconds and the movable scale can then be carried along the mouse cursor path throughout the image. Here I cropped a image section, saved it, and watermarked the second graphic applied in a photo editor. To finalize the ‘box’ size, mouseclick outside the meter measure entry boxes as each entry box must be exited for the shape to appear.

The Mars 2020 rover Perseverance has now landed in the ellipse, and we are waiting for the news and video releases.

I am sure we will not see the rover view this larger feature directly, due to the occurance on the steep dangerous elevated margin. The large feature is directly related to the margin shape and resistance to erosion.

Many of the smaller 2-3 meter feature channels lace the area in this image at a closer viewed scaling.
The mineralogy of these features will be interesting. Underwater, early formation, under an ice cap? Simply geology, chemistry, or something more?

A link for the very first image sent back by Perseverance.

Perseverance first return image.

An extended view along the delta margin shows precise alignment of the 10 meter width feature for more than 1800 meters length in just one view. My limited screen size limits easy display in one view here. You must try the Interactive Map link to convince yourself of this. All along the crater lower floor are similar parallel geological patterns nearly buried in the dust. The crater is a massive orderly structure.

Will the Perseverance rover be capable of displaying this orderly formation during the traverse? The patterns appear deep down the delta descent slope.
Is the entire region as well ordered?

The initial three Hazard avoidance images show eroded rocks with small domed shapes just feet from the rover landing location. Will these domed shapes be explored as possible Stromatolite type shapes?

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Sol 0
Initial Hazcam views once highly altered, enlarged, and small sections chosen, show a couple of irregular rounded or lumpy rocks with qualities for creating a mystery movie while fossil hunting. The alterations and enlargements prevent any certainty in the final appearances, and these JPEG’s will break down over transfers and adjustments in storage, so, these are just suggestions to prepare us as viewers during the future travels.

Right Rear Hazard camera view of nearby dunes, and the rounded rock exposed. Very altered. Future views with cleaned and adjusted cameras will show a very different appearance.

Front Hazcam initial image view below, also highly altered and enlarged. Each image altered differently. Later views will be more reliable in creating impressions. NASA would not approve of these views, but it will take days to see quality images from official releases. I see suggestive shapes, yet these appear to be very rough surface textures as in a ‘conglomerate’ type assembly in some, and, the two circular patterned rocks. These may be simply distortions of highlights and reflections in the few pixels of information. Hazcams are used to study ‘avoidance’ primarily rather than reliable textures and patterns. The next several weeks should give some realism to supplant the impressionism effect.

The touchdown was on firm ground, near moderate dunes. A good start on a traverse to the delta upslopes and higher ground.
The first month is dedicated to the helicopter/drone type equipment trial and detailed orientation.

By the uploading of my altered images from Sol 0, this first high resolution color image had been taken and was being transmitted by relay back to Earth. The image confirmed the Hazcam views were lacking accurate information when enlarged. The Jezero crater rocks as suggested in research literature do somewhat resemble the 2020 InSIGHT mission rocks. I imagined the first few images would solve the suggestive qualities of the Sol 0 Hazcam views, but this first color PNG has added to the intrique and compounded the mystery.
I have here decided to add closeup enlarged color views of rocks or whatever these may be, at 4X size of the original. These are again highly altered and prone to eventual decay and breakdown over time when posted. All can be downloaded from the image host at a button on the far lower right of the host page. Right clicking the image gives a further enlarged view as well. Now there are 6 or 7 suggestive ‘rock’ shapes to study. Good luck on resolving the mysteries as they unfold during 2021.

Sol 0 color image examples. First example shows no ‘Stromatolite’ domes, and actually is one of the rocks matching the 2019-2020 InSIGHT rock types. 4X original size and DPI 1647. Setting sun at far right, very low.
Above right of center in original.

A candidate for a Sci Fi/Fantasy example, a spiral snake shape with a central spheroid. Left of center near the rover wheel.

When rocks do not resemble rocks, the mission goals are being acheived, temporarily. Above center on the right of center. ‘Jewelry’ and ‘Brittlestar’. All examples are 4X of original.

Rock or ‘shell’ suggested, smooth with patterned color/shading. Suggests a fungi or ‘fairy cap’? Far right side.

Most of the original frame adapted to fit the Host positioning/limitations, and all seven shapes altered on the full frame view.
A great view of the local Delta face and disrupted ground dyke or channel wall feature. Possibly a portion of a small ejecta rise instead. Located at the top right corner of this enlargement.Nice blue sky, solving an arguement about Mars overhead skyline coloration. The original is quite ‘cute’ and informative.
The remaining items are near the rover body in the foreground and in shadow.

Credit, originals: NASA/JPL-Caltech/University of Arizona

Multimedia Images on Sol 1 and more,

The most informative single image I have seen for the Jezero crater location. Massive flooding periods and limits of layering-deposition areas are visible in the angle of view and wide area coverage. Great detail in the original when downloaded from NASA or HiRISE. A view without the rover descending would be nice if available somewhere. The crater interior is heavily cratered behind the enlarged inset of the EDL capture by HiRISE/MRO. This view slightly altered on the host.
Image: NASA/JPL/University of Arizona

In the sequence of evening releases of Sol 0 images, there is a completely differing view of the fourth closeup above, with the Right Hazard Camera view now released in full size for the first time. In a larger resloution size, the image dispels any ‘smooth shiny’ appearance and can be seen as a vesicular basalt type rock section even with the bad color and garish contrast. Looking from a backlighted position, the two images are very different in impression.
If this is a vesicular basalt rock, there was not a lake at this location.
This could be called the Big Wheel ‘big cleanup’ view.
Now the deep ‘channel’ features at two widths make some sense from the interactive map views.

The next weeks images will give some perspective on the actual content prior to chemical analysis.

Large Hazard Camera view in color.
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Sol 0 images were still appearing in the listing. Here a wheel has opened an example for us. At two settings for viewing the outer surface and under wheel shadow. Original image number on the displayed image with all changes by myself added to the number. Original size.
I cannot distinguish whether some of these are filled with dark minerals or not as yet.

Another early view of the distant dunes and a few closeup rocks with segregated vesicle areas, the last example showing unique surface 3D texture. If only we had a pair of closeups for a true 3D anaglyph of this last rock.
These cropped sections are at 4X and DPI 1647.

This example on the left of center at 4X.

This example closer to the center of the original. Also at 4X size, both are altered for detail.

A third example, 4X size, with the 3D texture lumps and fissured breakdown of the smooth surface. A challenge to see this unique developing rock character.

A good first day of work for Perseverance rover.

I assume these images will break down rather quickly but have enlarged this pair under the pressure of the wheel, as it was unclear whether the rover could image loose debris falling from the lowest open vesicle on the left. Viewing it closer, the well spaced ring of bright amygdule type tiny items surrounds the open central shape. This is at the red box area. Possibly a solid section has descended from the parent rock, or the shape may be as originally shaped with a partly lighted or darker material surface appearing to be a flow of loose particulates.
I made this image marked for the two ‘wagon wheel’ type radiating shapes from the centered vesicles, in white, and the ring of bright items around the red box marked example.
Perhaps a mineralogist or vulcanoligist can add to the descriptions.
The shape and pattern seem to match the larger item in the cropped view as the first example for Sol 0. A scaled pattern for this material?

The closeup above is too small to show the localized texture of the wheel side section. This view is at 4X size, DPI 1647, and shows that only one area of the wheel displays a texture similar in size to the bright spots in the rock crushed by the wheel.
Is the casting character shown or a ‘lubricant’, or is the sun angle the cause of confusion with an appearance of applied material attatched to only this one are of the side of the wheel? I can show more of the wheel, but see nothing except where the wheel was applied to the rock.

Sun angle is possibly to blame for this, but chance seems too narrow for that solution to my question. This seems similar to the InSIGHT Grapple mechanism problem of a liquid applied to the fingers.

Great job Dana. Shallow ice crystal would do the trick. At this latitude the phenomenon would be transitory.


Parachute deploy showed blue sky above dust layer.

Dana, you look at the rocks and I’ll look at the sky. A few surface color anomalies. Sky Crain release still showed blue skies. Surface images, well, more anomalies. For years the scour locations were dark and the surface was lighter. Now it has switched up it seems. The scour locations are lighter and the surface material darker.

Pleased to read a reply here, have a couple serious problems personally, so I’ll be late making a response. Thoses sky shots are very blue, and while I see some rocks in ‘pillow lava’ small shapes, they are very light toned apparently in balance, neutral in color, and I see no degrading water alterations of long term waters presence right at the touchdown spot.
I have seen recent volcanic cones at Death Valley, which over millions of years, even a hundred thousand years, has seen lakes and glacial ice built up.
Hope to be working on a few images when I return here tomorrow.

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I wasted one of my there. I can not pretend to be a geologist, even though Henrey tried. But when it comes to Mars weather. I Challenge anyone.

We must reply to each other, otherwise we are dead in the water. I think Hort would have something to say. Winston seems to have disappeared.

Natural color is in debate. Post brother. The natural Mars surface disturbance revels a dark underlying regolith. MRO image of Sky Crain Crash site below.


Perseverance has family “picture.” All of preveace Rovers.

Bottom line. When the dust settles on Mars. The sky is blue.⁹
Winds 10 to 15 gust to 30 mph

Cannot respond yet today with images, and the count is in the thousands thus far. This is an area distinct from the delta and even the large area of what is estimated to be a ‘lake’. From seeing the cleared zone apparently from the rockets on the crane, it appears the dunes are heavy, and the loose material around the flow residual rocks somehow allowed deep clearing there. A drive eventually should help but present somewhat boring passage when away from the gas erupting flow items. These materials are apparently in position from the active molten flow.
Tomorrow I should do some pictures again.
Frankly it looks to me as though this is a initial subduction process with Highlands rolling over the forced low elevation Lowlands tilting downward. Probably excess imagination.
The view of the rover developing family is one of my favorites thus far.

Makes me wonder what the depth of the local flow was with such oriented and large gas activity.


The Perseverance location. HiRISE image .

Another scaled view of the Perseverance touchdown location in the HiRISE image. This is cropped small allowing the view of right side arcs of layers.
Most of these features are not impact craters.

What a shock, the prior post disappeared as I made a edited correction.
Below, is the image which gives a closeup of the landing detail as in the original post. The rover has landed in a shallow ‘trough’ which leads to a crater shape. The trough is the dark linear item seen in the photos.
The crater is shallow as is the trough’ depth. I assume the crater must be deeper as the frough is seen passing accros the crater diameter. As the lander is setting in the trough it has a view from a lower vantage point than a flat terrain area and is not able to display a clear view of the area where it touched down. The crater is many tens of feet in diameter.
The gas vesicles of the rocks are oriented in local rocks, not vertical as would be the case in a strictly upward rising or static molten lava flow.
The landing chemistry has altered the appearance of the dark materials differently than prior landings as Darwin commented.
The landing attempt seems to have been at a low elevation initially, probably at a slight slopw as seen in the blasted circular sand area, with a ‘cleared zone’ at some broken flat rocks on the other side of the ‘sky crane’ rocket set, and the attempt was adjusted by the internal computer to the current flatter and more level spot.
The attempt is very visible nearby in the panorama image assembled after landing. In the nearly horizontal view the ‘sand’ fill between the flat rock pavement has been cleared as much or more than the loose dune sand/regolith material at the far side sky crane rocket firing.
These altered enlarged closeups show the HiRISE view of the landing spot.

A further altered view of the rover by satellite marked for the linear parallel apparent layers seen over and across other terrain details. The material has a slight rise on the sunlit side, and a dark or steeper far side. The pattern gives the impression of layers rather than long shallow dunes.

The rover has landed facing away from the crater, while aligned with and inside the dark trough.

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Thanks for the teaching Dana. Is the “Delta” a water or lava flow? Was lava volcanic
or associated with impact thermal distribution? Plan on spending the day looking for anything interesting.

I think I found the sulution to the dark surface images. We landed in a dark spot. This image of landing sites illustrates this.

I have always wondered why these areas exist. Is it microbial life, past or present? Will look for seasonal methane plumes, greater than Gale Crater. Is there or was there residual groundwater outgassing increasing oxidation. Perseverance may give us some atmospheric answers, but biological questions will remain.

As an aside I have been monitoring “rock guy” chatter. Seem we are not looking at a lake bottom, but impact ejecta and aeolian overlay of an ancient lake bed. Wonder how far down it is? Also, reexamination of satilite image does suggest fluvial channel. If it was water, most likely highland snowmelt.

I saw a few interesting sky shots, but just thumbnails. Maybe tomorrow.

Where is the 100 ft drill when you need it?

This Image from tdemeke of UMSF does sujest crossbedding. Multiple impacts?

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Great work overlooking the good technical persons at UMSF. If only they contributed here as well. I have just started some cropped sections of the PIA images and a couple Perseverance rover daily returns. I was already seeing the massive secondary and force flows crossing the touchdown point.
I see this sol 0009 image of the wheel at nearly the same afternoon timing as the sol 0000 early release image. The vesicles seem unchanged, and while the sun light is not correct for viewing the ‘bumps’ on the wheel edge, it appears they may be essentially the same despite low resolution and low contrast. The linear left side to ground pattern was a stationary solid of dark material, not a ‘spill’ of particulates, a but the dark interiors of right side gas spaces shows the appearance of ‘sticky’ or solid particulates or minerals. Not much change at all in the 9 sol separation of the two images.

If the tdemeke assembled image is correct, the interior of the Jezero crater may have been conditioned vertically by the delta margin ‘dike’ I displayed in previous entries. Was the ‘lake’ a solid structure of ice at depth, a debris cover over an ice table, or any number of variants of liquid flow and near vertical dike type altered margins? The smaller double walled linear paterns run at various directions across the lower floor near the Perseverance landing elevation. The actual vertical depth appearance of the delta margin gives the impression of an angle into delta wall, as in movement of either the delta forward into the ‘lake’ area, or a mutual movement of the crater floor and delta each into the other. I am still prone to view this area as a initiation of tectonic interaction of horizontal pressures. From the HiRISE views the steepness of a 2 to 4 billion year old delta and crater margin seem far too stable and lackful of erosion breakdown.
Possibly deep sublimation? Was Mars rapidly dried by a loss of pressure and heat?
A closer view and geological testing will show much of the mystery.

This cropped section of the PIA24333 annotated image shows many arcing flow fronts but the details are difficult to see. Perseverance has landed on outflow from massive burial and alteration by probably hot debris. I must show a few other cropped views to show the impression of the multiple fronts of material.
To the right side of Perseverance, approximately Northward, there is a large are of shinkage polygons crossing the rover location both West and East.
I was required to rotate one view annotated with my addition of image number to show a 90 degree rotation to the right, giving a slightly larger view of the forcing of the current crater floor exposed on the image host and on the blog. Both views show the flows but we are limited to seeing these images as released at low resolution without an available original HiRISE source to view.

The rover is headed by the mast to the top of the image. The shallow crater adjacent to the rover is to the rear of the rover body.

The large area of shrinkage polygons include crater floors which are ‘relaxed’ and shallow. Cooling and erosion chemically, or dessication and alteration by environmental conditions for the polygons? Clearly the relaxed crater floors are an indication of changes similar to ice heavy higher latitudes with high ice content during and after impacts. The smaller medium impact craters which are well shaped, are subsequent, and are showing bright rim materials. The most obvious craters are directional as ‘arrow’ or cone shaped rims. Those recent deep craters show directionality to the flow waves which are multple and parallel as a pattern.

The same section of PIA24333 rotated 90 degrees to the right. We tend to ‘see’ vertical separations more easily and distinctly. You must study the original to see additional levels in parallel to these paterns.

Topographic overlays or 3D views are important across the entire crater interior.
Your tdemeke image view shows a vertical delta wall and that much clearing of debris is not possible even from wind over time.
The view reminds me of the California Mojave river gourge cut through a hundred feet or more of layers of ‘dried mud’ in appearance. The area was cut by weather changes, changes in ground water level to surface elevation, and is just as vertical as the Jezero delta even in what is exposed as a Massive series of ‘mud layers’ which even droop and hang over each other with under cutting and over hangs. The old railroad rails were removed when the erosion brought the ‘dual lines’ of compressed ground material was eroded right to the edge of the vertical 100 foot or greater resulting cliff’. You would have to see the view at the Mojave old river path to get a proper imression.
This view in Jezero is as close as I have ever seen as an equivalent type drop-off of what we are describing here as submerged ‘mud’ and altered dust.
Wish I could take a drive and photo the scene for your understanding.
Hope Mars gives up it’s secrets without trying to climb the slopes there.

I’ll try to clear up acknowlegements and credits in the next entry.
The real solution is a far larger sucessful helicopter/drone type rover for a vertical addition to the rover mast view. This month will show if a large air device can be a long term type of rover.

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Here’s something nice to read… I’ve been amazed on how people are now able to reach different planets such as Mars. May God always guide us on how mankind will still walk to his path.

Here’s a video related the Perseverance landing:

In the Philippines, there have been proof that Filipinos can be intergalactic too even if the Mars issue to them were shaded with humor. FOR example this certain Senator Villar whoes also a real estate tycoon has made into a meme where she stands on Mars with a Flag of their well-respective company.

And there’s also this video wherein Jollibee had reached Mars already.

Here’s that video. Enjoy:

Fascinating. The arcing flow front depiction sure puts it in perspective. The lake probably started as liguid but transitioned to ice. There may have been glacial activity with Summer melt cycles. Will take a peak at hydrogen overlay later today. Maybe a clue.

Trying to understand lake evolution fist requires topographic information to understand precipitation patterns. This topographic map shows Jezero Crater is located on an extension of the Southern Highlands. It is NNE or 010 degrees from the center of Hellas Basin. This is significant because it would place it on a peninsula if a northern hemisphere sea existed. This is supported by hydrogen overlay and topographic map.

Topographic map clearly shows drainage channels from early rains, then snowmelt west of peninsula into lower levels. Hydrogen overlay shows highest hydrogen levels upslope. From a meterological perspective this would make sense. Upsloping flow would produce the most inhanced and longest lasting precipitation.

Bottom line. Looks like it started out as a mountain lake then froze over. This most likely was cyclical for awhile. Shifts in polar axis may have resulted in major thaw events.

Topographic map:

Hydrogen overlay:

As an aside the image guys at UMSF, like everyone else, are really struggling with surface image color calibration. In trying to make the surface look like Gale Crater, they lose the sky.

The image from Sean UMSF.

These images are more akin to the Huygens probe.